UK Biobank (United Kingdom)

Field Names
Records
Coordinating Country
United Kingdom
Region

United Kingdom

Brief Database Description

UK Biobank is a large, population-based prospective study that recruited 502,642 people aged between 40-69 years in 2006-2010 from across the country.  The participants have undergone measures, provided blood, urine and saliva samples for future analysis, detailed information about themselves and agreed to have their health followed.  The purpose of this biobank is to conduct detailed investigations of the genetic and non-genetic determinants of the diseases of middle and old age such as cancer, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, eye disorders, depression and forms of dementia. Ideally, the UK Biobank will have up to 20 years of longitudinal follow up on the participants.  Follow-up is conducted chiefly through linkages to routinely available national datasets and includes ascertainment of deaths, prevalent and incident cancers, and hospital admissions among other outcomes.

The participants were assessed in 22 assessment centers throughout the UK, covering a variety of different settings to provide socioeconomic and ethnic heterogeneity and urban–rural mix. This ensured a broad distribution across all exposures to allow the reliable detection of generalizable associations between baseline characteristics and health outcomes.  The assessment visit comprised electronic signed consent; a self-completed touch-screen questionnaire; brief computer-assisted interview; physical and functional measures; and collection of blood, urine, and saliva. Multiple aliquots of different sample fractions are stored in UK Biobank’s automated laboratory, allowing for a wide range of future assays.

 
UK biobank has undertaken repeat measures on 20,000 participants, and is currently undertaking an MRI body and DEXA bone scanning enhancement. Many participants optionally wear a wrist worn activity monitor, and have also completed detailed web-based questionnaires on their diet, cognitive function and work history. All data, including genetic, biochemistry and imaging data, are being made available for research as they become ready.

The UK Biobank was established by the Wellcome Trust medical charity, Medical Research Council, Department of Health, Scottish Government and the Northwest Regional Development Agency. It has also had funding from the Welsh Assembly Government, British Heart Foundation and Diabetes UK. UK Biobank is hosted by the University of Manchester and supported by the National Health Service (NHS).

Database Type
Longitudinal Population Database
- Drug and Diagnosis Data
Large Clinical Trial Database
Tissue/Blood and Genomic/Pharmacogenetic Database

(UK Biobank is a large, population-based prospective study that collects blood, urine and saliva for analysis)

Database Source
Case Report Forms

Survey Data
Other
[The assessment visit comprised:
- electronic signed consent;
- self-completed touch-screen questionnaire;
- brief computer-assisted interview;
- physical and functional measures; and
- collection of blood, urine, and saliva (for biochemistry and genetic analyses).
Additional data come from wearable activity monitors, web-based questionnaires, and imaging data.]

Frequency of Data Collection
Other

(Repeat assessment data were collected on a subset of 20,000 participants between August 2012 and June 2013, and the repeat assessments are scheduled every 2-3 years during follow up)

Frequency of Data Update
Ongoing
Years Covered
2006 - Present

(The recruitment period was from 2006 through 2010)

Population Type
General Population
Patient Type
Outpatient/Non-Institutionalized
Date of Last Update
Ongoing

(UK Biobank is updated on an ongoing basis;
This profile was developed for the B.R.I.D.G.E. TO DATA site on August 15, 2019.)

Field Names
Records
Database Population Size
0.5 - 1 Million

(502,642 participants)

Active Population Size
<0.5 Million
Annual Change in Population
N/A

(Not available; over 14,000 deaths have been linked to the study population)

Sample Weights - Extrapolation Factors
No
Final Population Size
N/A

(Not applicable; however, a total of 502,642 participants were recruited and data collection and follow-up on the participants are ongoing)

Field Names
Records
Age of Patients at Data Collection
Yes

Age at recruitment and age at first assessment and date of birth; other age data include: Participants aged 100+ years, and age in relation to certain medical events, e.g., age at start of contraceptive pill, age when heart attack diagnosed, age at first sexual intercourse, age when stopped smoking, etc.)

Approximate Percentage of Participants <18 years and those >65 years

<18 years = 0%
>65 years = N/A

(Not available;
However, UK Biobank is a large, population-based prospective study that recruited 502,642 people aged between 40-69 years during the period 2006-2010 from across the country. The data reflects age at recruitment; median age 58 years)

Gender Data
Yes
Percentage of Males/Females

Males = 45.6%
Females = 54.4%

(229,176 males and 273,466 females)

Ethnicity / Race Data
Yes

Race data include:
- White,
- Mixed,
- Asian/Asian British,
- Black/Black British, or
- Chinese.
Ethnicity data include:
- British,
- Irish,
- Caribbean,
- African,
- Indian,
- Pakistani,
- Bangladeshi,
- Chinese, or
- Other ethnic group.
There is also a genetic ethnic grouping field that uses genetic data to probabilistically score participants as Caucasian.

Geographic Location

Yes

- Country of birth
- Home location at assessment (and length of time at the listed address)
- Primary care trust where GP was registered
- Primary care trust responsible for participant data
- Delivery places that participant has had data recorded

Date of Birth Recorded
Yes
Death Recorded
Yes

Death data are obtained from multiple sources, including linked databases such as death registries, cancer registries, hospital discharge information, and employment history.

Death registrars are primarily used to obtain the participant's age and date of death as well as the cause of death (ICD-10 and description).

Family history details include the mother and father's age at death and non-accidental deaths in close genetic family.

Availability of death certificate / autopsy information
No
Other Demographic Data
Yes

There are several socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that are captured in the UK Biobank. These include (but are not limited to) the following:
- 17 data fields on Education and Employment (e.g., Age completed full time education, Job code, Length of working week for main job);
- 13 data fields on Early Life (e.g., Adopted as a child, Country of Birth, Handedness);
- 8 data fields on Geographic & Location (e.g., Home are population density - Urban/Rural; Home location at assessment); and
- 8 data fields on Primary demographics (e.g., Date of attending assessment center, Townsend deprivation index at recruitment).

Field Names
Records
Physician ID
N/A

(Not applicable)

Physician Specialty
N/A

(Not applicable)

Pharmacy ID
N/A

(Not applicable)

Field Names
Records
Diagnosis Data
Yes

Diagnosis data are captured in the main and secondary diagnosis data fields as well as data fields for cancer, death, family history, medical history, psychosocial, cognitive, physical measures, and sex-specific factors.

The questionnaires also included specific questions related to:
- Breathing;
- Cancer screening;
- Chest pain;
- Claudication and peripheral artery disease;
- Eyesight;
- General health;
- Hearing;
- Medical conditions (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, allergies, lung disease, fractures, and other serious medical conditions or disabilities);
- Mouth;
- Pain; and
- Sex-specific factors (e.g., male - number of children fathered, age of voice change, female - age of menopause, number of stillbirths, etc.).

Diagnoses Coded
ICD-10

ICD-9
[Diagnosis (main or secondary) and Type of cancer are coded with ICD-9 and ICD-10. Cause of death data are coded with ICD-10.]

Diagnoses: Date Parameters
2006 - Present
Diagnoses: Maximum Number of Codes Allowed
2
Physical Examination Findings
Yes

There are 2 data fields dedicated to diagnoses (main and secondary, both coded with ICD-9 and ICD-10). Other diagnosis data are captured in other data fields (e.g., Cause of death).

Birth Defect Data
Yes

Birth defect data may be captured as:
- Diagnosis data (main or secondary),
- Primary cause of death,
- Cancer diagnosis data, or
- Operative procedures to correct birth defect.

Cancer Data
Yes

'- Type of cancer
- Self-reported cancer
- Histology
- Age and date at cancer diagnosis
- Tumor behavior
- Cancer diagnosed by doctor
- Cancer screening (colon screening, PSA test)
- Family history of cancer
- Cancer-related operations, etc.

Infectious Disease Data
Yes

Infectious disease data include:
- ICD-9 and ICD-10 diagnoses,
- Current eye infection,
- Infection as a cause of death,
- Contraindication for spirometry,
- Infection as a part of self-reported illnesses,
- Operative procedures related to infection,
- Specialty of clinical consultant,
- Reason for skipping ECG, and
- Reason for skipping physical examination measurements (e.g., grip strength)

Environmental Exposures
Yes

Environmental exposure data include:
- External causes of morbidity and mortality,
- Occupational exposures,
- Secondhand smoke exposures (at home, outside home), and
- Frequency of loud music exposure.

Behavioral Data Elements
Yes

Behavioral data elements include information on:
- Smoking (~30 data fields, e.g., Pack years of smoking, smoking status, Ever tried to stop smoking, Number of unsuccessful stop-smoking attempts, Maternal smoking around birth, Smoking compared to 10 years previous)
- Alcohol (~42 data fields, e.g., Alcohol drinker status, Alcohol consumed, Intake frequency, Alcohol intake versus 10 years previously, Alcohol usually taken with meals, Reason for reducing amount of alcohol drunk, Average monthly intake of beer, champagne, red wine, etc., Former alcohol drinker)
- Diet (36+ data fields, e.g., Type of special diet followed, Variation in diet, diet sweets intake, Typical diet yesterday, Low calorie drink intake, Bread consumed, Coffee/Tea consumed, Ice cream intake, Type of milk consumed, Ingredients in homemade soup, Liquide used to make porridge)
- Physical activity (50+ data fields, e.g., type of physical activity in last 4 weeks, Duration of light/moderate/vigorous physical activity, Chest pain felt during physical activity, Doctor restricts physical activity due to heart condition, Maximum heart rate during fitness test, Leisure/social activities, Able to walk or cycle unaided for 10 minutes)
- Driving (~13 data fields, e.g., Time spend driving, Reason for glasses/contact lenses, Motor vehicle accident as a cause of death)

Field Names
Records
Procedure Data
Yes

Data on operations and laboratory testing are captured

Procedures Coded
OPCS
Number of Procedures Coded
2

There are 2 data fields dedicated to operative procedures (main and secondary coded using OPCS). Other procedural data are captured in other data fields (e.g., Cause of death, Treatment).

Procedure Date Parameters
2006 - Present
Laboratory Information
Yes

Physical measures included:
- Blood pressure;
- Arterial stiffness;
- Eye measures (visual acuity, refractometry, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography);
- Body composition measures (including impedance);
- Hand-grip strength;
- Ultrasound bone densitometry;
- Spirometry; and
- Exercise/fitness test with ECG.

Cognitive function testing was conducted during a initial and repeat visit, and included testing for:
- Prospective memory;
- Pairs matching;
- Fluid intelligence;
- Reaction time;
- Numeric memory;
- Lights pattern memory;
- Words;
- Trail making; and
- Symbol digit substitution.

Imaging data included:
- Abdominal MRI;
- Brain MRI;
- Heart MRI; and
- Bone size/mineral/density and body composition.

Samples of blood, urine and saliva were also collected. The list of biochemical and genetic markers are listed in the Biomarkers field of this profile.

Field Names
Records
Drug Data
Yes

Drug data include:
- Treatments/medications,
- Medication for the treatment of specific conditions (e.g., cholesterol, BP, diabetes, smoking cessation, constipation, heartburn, allergies, etc.),
- Number of medications,
- Taking other prescription medications, and
- Recent medications for specific conditions (asthma, cystic fibrosis, hay fever, etc.).
Also, information are captured on:
- Illicit drug use,
- Supplements (dietary, vitamins, energy, mineral, protein),
- Herbal teas, and
- Flu vaccines.

Drug Date Parameters
2006 - Present
Drug Regimen & Route
No

However, sometimes information on the formulation are provided as par of the drug name, e.g., gelusil tablet, arobon 80% powder, isopto epinal 1% eye drops, benzagel 5% gel)

Drug Manufacturer
No
Drug Dosage
No
Drug Days Supply
No
Drug Coding System: Maximum Number
N/A

(Not available)

Drug Coding System: Primary
Other

READ

Drug Coding System: Other
N/A

(Not applicable)

Drug Generic Name
N/A

(Not applicable)

Drug Additional Information
No
Field Names
Records
Biobank Type
Population-based

 
UK Biobank is a large, population-based prospective study that recruited 502,642 people aged between 40-69 years during the period 2006-2010 from across the country. The participants were assessed in 22 assessment centers throughout the UK, covering a variety of different settings to provide socioeconomic and ethnic heterogeneity and urban–rural mix. This ensured a broad distribution across all exposures to allow the reliable detection of generalizable associations between baseline characteristics and health outcomes.

Ideally, the UK Biobank will have up to 20 years of longitudinal follow up on the participants. Follow-up is conducted chiefly through linkages to routinely available national datasets and includes acertainment of deaths, prevalent and incident cancers, and hospital admissions among other outcomes.

The assessment visit comprised:
- electronic signed consent;
- a self-completed touch-screen questionnaire;
- brief computer-assisted interview;
- physical and functional measures; and
- collection of blood, urine, and saliva.

Human Specimen
Blood: Buffy cells, plasma, RBC, serum
Saliva
Urine

(Participants have undergone measures, provided blood, urine and saliva samples for future analysis, detailed information about themselves and agreed to have their health followed. The purpose of this biobank is to conduct detailed investigations of the genetic and non-genetic determinants of the diseases of middle and old age such as cancer, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, eye disorders, depression and forms of dementia.)

Blood Type
Yes
Biomarkers
Yes

The biomarkers selected for assay have been chosen because they are established risk factors for disease (e.g., lipids for vascular disease, sex hormones for cancer), diagnostic measures (e.g., HbA1c for diabetes and rheumatoid factor for arthritis) or characterize phenotypes not otherwise well assessed (e.g., biomarkers for renal and liver function). Biomarkers from Serum/Red blood cell/Urine include the following:
Cardiovascular:
- Cholesterol
- Direct Low Density Lipoprotein
- HDL-Cholesterol
- Triglyceride
- Apolipoprotein A
- Apolipoprotein B
- C-reactive Protein
- Lipoprotein (a)
Bone and joint:
- Vitamin D
- Rheumatoid factor
- Alkaline Phosphatase
- Calcium
Cancer:
- SHBG
- Testosterone
- Oestradiol
- IGF-1
Diabetes:
- HbA1c
- Glucose
Renal:
- Cystatin C
- Creatinine
- Total protein Urea
- Phosphate
- Urate
- Creatinine (enzymatic)
- Sodium
- Microalbumin
- Potassium
Liver:
- Albumin
- Direct Bilirubin
- Total Bilirubin
- Gamma Glutamyltransferase
- Alanine aminotransferase
- Aspartate aminotransferase

Patient ID
Barcode

 

Each vial of a sample will contain a unique bar-code that will be scanned into the assessment centre IT system. The barcode links each vacutainer with the unique participant identifier number. It is important that the linkage of the samples to participant data via barcode ocurrs from the start of sample collection at each of the laboratory data structure into the central Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS).

Number of Samples
Yes

The participants have undergone measures, provided blood, urine and saliva samples for future analysis, detailed information about themselves and agreed to have their health followed. Multiple aliquots of different sample fractions are stored in UK Biobank’s automated laboratory, allowing for a wide range of future assays.

Frequency of Sample Collection
The samples were collected in April 2007, and additional blood and saliva samples were collected in August of 2009
Pre-diagnostic Sample Collection
Yes
Post-treatment Sample Collection
Yes
Method of Sample Collection
Blood draw, urine in cup and saliva collection
Age at Sample Collection
Yes

Age (reported or imputed) and DOB

Date of Sample Collection
Yes
Reason for Sample Collection
Clinical trial
Diagnostic
Genetic testing
Public health survey
Other

(The purpose of this biobank is to conduct detailed investigations of the genetic and nongenetic determinants of the diseases of middle and old age such as cancer, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, eye disorders, depression and forms of dementia.)

Method of Sample Storage
All vacutainers are to be maintained at 4°C (with the exception of the acid citrate dextrose tube which is to be maintained at 18°C) until ready for packing and dispatch to the coordinating centre laboratory in temperature-controlled shipping boxes.

The boxes will be collected by a commercial courier and transported overnight to the central laboratory where they will be processed and transferred to ultra-low temperature archives.

Liquid nitrogen serves as a back-up archive (-196°C). Ultra-low temperature archives involve the following:
- Plasma;
- Buffy coat;
- Red cells in EDTA (9ml) x2 vacutainers stored in -80°C freezer and liquid nitrogen tanks;
- Plasma in EDTA (PST) vacutainers stored in -80°C freezer and liquid nitrogen tanks;
- Serum in Clot activator (SST) vacutainers stored in -80°C freezer and liquid nitrogen tanks;
- DMSO blood in ACD vacutainers stored in liquid nitrogen tanks;
- Hematology in EDTA (4ml) vacutainers are for immediate use; and
- Urine in urine vacutainers stored in -80°C freezer and liquid nitrogen tanks.

Length of Sample Storage
At least 20 years
Pathology
Unknown
DNA Isolation
Yes

171,047 DNA samples are available, covering 171,047 participants

RNA Isolation
Yes

131,366 RNA are available, covering 128,037 participants

Cell Culture
No
Genetic Testing
Yes

There are two closely related arrays, referred to as the UK BiLEVE array and UK Biobank Axiom Array. The UK BiLEVE array was designed first and was run on the first ~50,000 samples genotyped for UK Biobank. UK Biobank Axiom Array was designed subsequently with a view to maximizing marker overlap as much as possible between the arrays. Some minor changes were made to the array to produce UK Biobank Axiom Array, which will be typed on the remaining ~450,000 samples. The UK BiLEVE and UK Biobank Axiom Arrays are extremely similar with over 95% common content.

The list of genetic fields include:
- Genetic ethnic grouping
- Genetic principal components
- Genetic relatedness pairing
- Genetic relatedness exclusions
- Genetic relatedness factor
- Genetic relatedness IBS0
- Genetic sex
- Heterozygosity
- Heterozygosity, PCA corrected
- Missingness
- Recommended genomic analysis exclusions
- UKBiLEVE unrelatedness indicator, and
- Multi-allelic genetic markers (Affymatrix array): Affymetrix SNP ID, Chromosome, Position within chromosome, Allele A, Allele B.

Access for Research: Specimens
Yes, for clinical and/or epidemiologic research

(Requires permission via data access application)

Access for Research: Genetic Data
Yes

(Requires permission via data access application)

Access for Research: Epidemiologic Data
Yes
Quality Assurance Procedures
Yes

About 20,000 aliquots will be produced in 1.4ml bar-coded tubes each day. This high throughput repetitive work, coupled with the requirement for high quality and secure tracking of samples, has led to the development of highly automated platforms for UK Biobank that are fully integrated with the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) software. Some of the liquid handling tasks (e.g. urine) can be managed using customised integrated robotic workstations available from commercial suppliers. The more complex fractionation and liquid handling tasks will be performed on custom-built multi- function automated platforms. Importantly, these platforms do not rely on any “leading edge” technology to function; rather they represent a new configuration of existing robust technologies (which reduces the risk of failure). Only those assays that cannot be done subsequently on samples that have been frozen (i.e. haematology) are to be performed as samples arrive at the central laboratory in order to streamline processing, improve cost- effectiveness and minimize quality control issues.

Family History
Yes

Family history data include:
- Age of parents,
- Living/deceased status of parents,
- Number of siblings,
- Non-accidental death in close genetic family, and
- llnesses in parents.
Family history is obtained for adoptive parents if subject is an adopted child.

Medical History
Yes

History of diseases and medication use are captured, including:
- History of medical conditions,
- Cancer,
- Psychiatric/mental health,
- Memory,
- Sexual health,
- MRIs,
- Operations, and
- Early life factors.

Biobank Linkage
Clinical database
Vitals registry
Civil registry
Other
Field Names
Records
Type of Genetic Database
N/A
Source of Genetic Data
N/A
Specimen Genotyped
N/A
Tissue Form
N/A
Genetic Template
N/A
Gene-Drug Response
N/A
Gene-Disease Relationship
N/A
Gene-Health Outcome Relationship
N/A
Gene-Environment Response
N/A
Method of Imputing Genetic Data
N/A
Genetic Variant Identification
N/A
Genetic Data Level
N/A
Genotyping Method
N/A
Method of Genetic Variant Filtering
N/A
Haplotypes
N/A
Haplogroups
N/A
Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR)
N/A
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
N/A
Variant Type
N/A
Variant Class
N/A
Mutation Indicated
N/A
Position
N/A
Amino Acid Change
N/A
Genotype / Polymorphism
N/A
Allele Frequency
N/A
Linkage Disequilibrium (r²)
N/A
Noncarriers Indicated
N/A
Association Statistics
N/A
Genetic Relatedness Pairing
N/A
Data Sharing: Genetic Data
N/A
Access for Research
N/A
Genetic Data Linkage
N/A
Description of Genetic Data Linkage
N/A
Field Names
Records
Cost Data
No
Cost Denomination
N/A

(Not applicable)

Type of Cost Data
N/A

(Not applicable)

Description of Surrogate Link
N/A

(Not applicable)

Field Names
Records
Data Validation Against Original Source
Yes

Validation for questionnaires: Pre-coded lists of diseases, drugs, and occupations are built into the CAPI system, along with structured search facilities, to help this information to be recorded (and automatically coded) both rapidly and completely. Other innovations to improve data quality and efficiency of collection include the use of inbuilt cross-checks between relevant questionnaire responses, and check messages when extreme values are entered or when no value is provided.

Validation for data linkage: On receipt of the data file from the external data provider, the contents are inspected to understand exactly what information is contained. In particular, the format and values of individual data fields are scrutinized to understand whether they conform to those indicated in the data dictionary, and whether the information is useful for research purposes. Any coding ambiguities identified at this stage are clarified by UK Biobank’s data analysts or with the data provider, if necessary.

Check for the following are performed: Mismatches, data formatting, Definitive list of coded values.

Values which fail validation are flagged for attention and investigated further until a decision is made about whether to exclude the record from import (i.e. the record does not belong to a UK Biobank participant), to modify the list of definitive values (i.e. the data dictionary) to incorporate a new valid code, or to modify the value into a valid code.

Access to Medical Records
No
Linkage to Other Databases
Yes

Identifiable data (such as name, date of birth, NHS number) is collected for each participant at recruitment and is also contained in the data file supplied to UK Biobank. The mismatch rate is estimated to be <0.1%, largely due to a very high proportion of the cohort having a NHS number (or CHI number in Scotland), which acts as a unique identifier for linkage purposes.

Brief Description of Linkage Capabilities

Linkages to Hospital inpatient databases, GP databases, Death registers, and Cancer registers are performed.

Death data: 
- England & Wales: Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) [2006 onwards]
- Scotland: Information Services Department (ISD) [2006 onwards]

Cancer data:
- England & Wales: Information Centre (NHS IC) [1979 onwards] 
- Scotland: National Records of Scotland, NHS Central Register [1957 onwards]

Hospital Admissions (Inpatient) data:
- England: Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) [1996 onwards]
- Scotland: Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) [1981 onwards]
- Wales: Patient Episode Database for Wales (PEDW) [1999 onwards]

Field Names
Records
Database Contact Data

Professor Sir Rory Collins
Principal Investigator at UK Biobank
Head of Nuffield Department of Population Health and BHF Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
Phone: +44 (0)1865 743743 
Fax: +44 (0)1865 743985
Email: rory.collins@ndph.ox.ac.uk

Alternate Contact

Dr. Naomi Allen
Senior Epidemiologist at UK Biobank
Associate Professor in Epidemiology, UK Biobank, Nuffield Department of Population Health
Phone: +44 (0)1865 743805
E-mail: naomi.allen@ndph.ox.ac.uk

Source of Database Funding
Government
Private

(The UK Biobank was established by the Wellcome Trust medical charity, Medical Research Council, Department of Health, Scottish Government and the Northwest Regional Development Agency. It has also had funding from the Welsh Assembly Government, British Heart Foundation and Diabetes UK. UK Biobank is hosted by the University of Manchester and supported by the National Health Service (NHS). UK Biobank is open to bona fide researchers anywhere in the world, including those funded by academia and industry.)

Sponsoring Government Agency
Department of Health
Scottish Government
Welsh Assembly Government
National Health Service (NHS)
Sponsoring Pharmaceutical Manufacturer

N/A

(Not applicable)

Database Usage Restrictions
Public Access

The Resource is available to all bona fide researchers for all types of health-related research that is in the public interest, without preferential or exclusive access for any person. All researchers, whether in universities, charities, government agencies or commercial companies, and whether based in the UK or abroad, will be subject to the same application process and approval criteria.

Applications to use the Resource will be checked to ensure that research proposals are consistent with these Access Procedures, the Ethics & Governance Framework, and the consent that was provided by the participants (including having relevant scientific and ethics approval). Data licenses are valid for 1 year.

Access to the biological samples that are limited and depletable will be carefully controlled and coordinated. The quantity of sample that is required will be judged against the potential benefits of the research project, with advice from appropriate experts as required.

Charge for Database Usage
Yes

No charge to register or to view data in the data fields in the showcase. To access data, applications need to be submitted and data requests will result in a fee.

Access to the Resource is on a cost-recovery basis, and charges are the same, regardless of the type of Institution (i.e. whether from academia or commercial organizations). Costs are based on whether the dataset requires data, bulk items (i.e. data that requires in-situ access), or samples. Following a review of our charging procedure, there is now an initial fee at preliminary application submission, followed by a flat fee for data extraction (for non-bulk data).The UK Biobank charging policy is as follows:
- £250 + VAT (where applicable) payable upon submission of a preliminary application.
- £1,500 + VAT (where applicable) per application that requires access to data only.
An additional cost of £500 + VAT (where applicable) for access to any bulk data files (includes MRI/ DXA/ carotid ultrasound data available from October 2015, OCT and fundus images, ECG raw data, HES data, genetic data, built environment data and accelerometer data). Please note that the genetic data includes the genotyping data and the imputed data. These costs are subject to change; as and when more imaging data are acquired costs may be increased. We will update this page once these costs have been finalized
- £bespoke quote for applications that request access to biological samples.
- £bespoke quote for re-contact requests.
- £bespoke quote for particularly time-consuming customization of data sets.

No charge to register or to view data in the data fields in the showcase. To access data, applications need to be submitted and data requests will result in a fee.

Access to the Resource is on a cost-recovery basis, and charges are the same, regardless of the type of Institution (i.e. whether from academia or commercial organizations). Costs are based on whether the dataset requires data, bulk items (i.e. data that requires in-situ access), or samples. Following a review of our charging procedure, there is now an initial fee at preliminary application submission, followed by a flat fee for data extraction (for non-bulk data).The UK Biobank charging policy is as follows:
- £250 + VAT (where applicable) payable upon submission of a preliminary application.
- £1,500 + VAT (where applicable) per application that requires access to data only.
An additional cost of £500 + VAT (where applicable) for access to any bulk data files (includes MRI/ DXA/ carotid ultrasound data available from October 2015, OCT and fundus images, ECG raw data, HES data, genetic data, built environment data and accelerometer data). Please note that the genetic data includes the genotyping data and the imputed data. These costs are subject to change; as and when more imaging data are acquired costs may be increased. We will update this page once these costs have been finalized
- £bespoke quote for applications that request access to biological samples.
- £bespoke quote for re-contact requests.
- £bespoke quote for particularly time-consuming customization of data sets.

Data Media Format
Other

[Online

Some data items that are particularly large and/or complex are available to download as separate data files (e.g. imaging files (MRI, OCT scans), ECG data, accelerometer data, and hospital in-patient data). For some of these files (e.g., OCT data), in-situ access is also available.]

Number of Publications Using Database
>180 publications in PubMed
References of Studies Using/Describing Database

1. Dekkers IA, Jansen PR, Lamb HJ. Obesity, Brain Volume, and White Matter Microstructure at MRI: A Cross-sectional UK Biobank Study. Radiology. 2019 Apr 23:181012.

2. Hwang LD, Lin C, Gharahkhani P, Cuellar-Partida G, Ong JS, An Gordon SD, Zhu G, MacGregor S, Lawlor DA, Breslin PAS, Wright MJ, Martin NG, Reed DR. New insight into human sweet taste: a genome-wide association study of the perception and intake of sweet substances. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 21. pii: nqz043.

3. Machado-Fragua MD, Struijk EA, Ballesteros JM, Ortolá R, Rodriguez Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of falls in 2 European cohorts of older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 21. pii: nqy369.

4. Hajna S, White T, Panter J, Brage S, Wijndaele K, Woodcock J, Ogilvie D, Imamura F, Griffin SJ. Driving status, travel modes and accelerometer assessed physical activity in younger, middle-aged and older adults: a prospective study of 90 810 UK Biobank participants. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 19. pii: dyz065.

5. Lotta LA, Mokrosiński J, Mendes de Oliveira E, Li C, Sharp SJ, Luan J, Brouwers B, Ayinampudi V, Bowker N, Kerrison N, Kaimakis V, Hoult D, Stewart ID,  Wheeler E, Day FR, Perry JRB, Langenberg C, Wareham NJ, Farooqi IS. Human Gain-of-Function MC4R Variants Show Signaling Bias and Protect against Obesity. Cell. 2019 Apr 18;177(3):597-607.e9.

6. Khera AV, Chaffin M, Wade KH, Zahid S, Brancale J, Xia R, Distefano M, Senol-Cosar O, Haas ME, Bick A, Aragam KG, Lander ES, Smith GD, Mason-Suares H, Fornage M, Lebo M, Timpson NJ, Kaplan LM, Kathiresan S. Polygenic Prediction of Weight and Obesity Trajectories from Birth to Adulthood. Cell. 2019 Apr 18;177(3):587-596.e9.

7. Johnson EC, St Pierre CL, Meyers J, Aliev F, McCutcheon VV, Lai D, Dick DM, Goate AM, Kramer J, Kuperman S, Nurnberger JI Jr, Schuckit MA, Porjesz B, Edenberg HJ, Bucholz KK, Agrawal A. The genetic relationship between alcohol consumption and aspects of problem drinking in an ascertained sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2019 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print]

8. Kendall KM, Rees E, Bracher-Smith M, Legge S, Riglin L, Zammit S,  O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ, Jones I, Kirov G, Walters JTR. Association of Rare Copy Number Variants With Risk of Depression. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print] 

9. Bradbury KE, Murphy N, Key TJ. Diet and colorectal cancer in UK Biobank: a prospective study. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 17. pii: dyz064. 

10. de Kovel CGF, Francks C. The molecular genetics of hand preference revisited. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 12;9(1):5986.
 

Database Contact
Database Contact Data

Professor Sir Rory Collins
Principal Investigator at UK Biobank
Head of Nuffield Department of Population Health and BHF Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
Phone: +44 (0)1865 743743 
Fax: +44 (0)1865 743985
Email: rory.collins@ndph.ox.ac.uk

Alternate Contact

Dr. Naomi Allen
Senior Epidemiologist at UK Biobank
Associate Professor in Epidemiology, UK Biobank, Nuffield Department of Population Health
Phone: +44 (0)1865 743805
E-mail: naomi.allen@ndph.ox.ac.uk

References of Studies Using/Describing Database

1. Dekkers IA, Jansen PR, Lamb HJ. Obesity, Brain Volume, and White Matter Microstructure at MRI: A Cross-sectional UK Biobank Study. Radiology. 2019 Apr 23:181012.

2. Hwang LD, Lin C, Gharahkhani P, Cuellar-Partida G, Ong JS, An Gordon SD, Zhu G, MacGregor S, Lawlor DA, Breslin PAS, Wright MJ, Martin NG, Reed DR. New insight into human sweet taste: a genome-wide association study of the perception and intake of sweet substances. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 21. pii: nqz043.

3. Machado-Fragua MD, Struijk EA, Ballesteros JM, Ortolá R, Rodriguez Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of falls in 2 European cohorts of older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 21. pii: nqy369.

4. Hajna S, White T, Panter J, Brage S, Wijndaele K, Woodcock J, Ogilvie D, Imamura F, Griffin SJ. Driving status, travel modes and accelerometer assessed physical activity in younger, middle-aged and older adults: a prospective study of 90 810 UK Biobank participants. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 19. pii: dyz065.

5. Lotta LA, Mokrosiński J, Mendes de Oliveira E, Li C, Sharp SJ, Luan J, Brouwers B, Ayinampudi V, Bowker N, Kerrison N, Kaimakis V, Hoult D, Stewart ID,  Wheeler E, Day FR, Perry JRB, Langenberg C, Wareham NJ, Farooqi IS. Human Gain-of-Function MC4R Variants Show Signaling Bias and Protect against Obesity. Cell. 2019 Apr 18;177(3):597-607.e9.

6. Khera AV, Chaffin M, Wade KH, Zahid S, Brancale J, Xia R, Distefano M, Senol-Cosar O, Haas ME, Bick A, Aragam KG, Lander ES, Smith GD, Mason-Suares H, Fornage M, Lebo M, Timpson NJ, Kaplan LM, Kathiresan S. Polygenic Prediction of Weight and Obesity Trajectories from Birth to Adulthood. Cell. 2019 Apr 18;177(3):587-596.e9.

7. Johnson EC, St Pierre CL, Meyers J, Aliev F, McCutcheon VV, Lai D, Dick DM, Goate AM, Kramer J, Kuperman S, Nurnberger JI Jr, Schuckit MA, Porjesz B, Edenberg HJ, Bucholz KK, Agrawal A. The genetic relationship between alcohol consumption and aspects of problem drinking in an ascertained sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2019 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print]

8. Kendall KM, Rees E, Bracher-Smith M, Legge S, Riglin L, Zammit S,  O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ, Jones I, Kirov G, Walters JTR. Association of Rare Copy Number Variants With Risk of Depression. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print] 

9. Bradbury KE, Murphy N, Key TJ. Diet and colorectal cancer in UK Biobank: a prospective study. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 17. pii: dyz064. 

10. de Kovel CGF, Francks C. The molecular genetics of hand preference revisited. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 12;9(1):5986.